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Effect of dietary raw and fermented sour cherry kernel (Prunus cerasus L.) on digestibility, intestinal morphology and caecal microflora in broiler chickens

Journal Paper
Emrah Güngör, Güray Erener
Poultry Science
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary raw sour cherry kernel (RC) or fermented sour cherry kernel (FC) on apparent digestibility, ileal morphology, and caecal microflora in broiler chickens. Raw sour cherry kernel was fermented by Aspergillus niger for 7 D. A total of 343 one-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were assigned to 7 dietary treatments consisting of 7 replicates of 7 broilers each. All birds were fed with a commercial diet or diets supplemented with 1%, 2%, or 4% RC or FC. The experimental period was 42 D. Apparent dry matter (DM), nitrogen and ash digestibilities were diminished (P < 0.05) by dietary RC inclusion, although dietary FC did not negatively affect (P > 0.05) nutrient digestibility. Dietary 1% FC increased (P < 0.01) the villus height to crypt depth ratio (VH:CD) compared with the other treatment groups, although RC4 reduced the villus height (VH, P < 0.001) and VH:CD (P < 0.01), compared with the control group. Dietary treatments had no effect (P > 0.05) on the crypt depth (CD). Birds fed 1% FC had the highest (P < 0.05) caecal Lactobacillus spp. counts among the treatment groups. Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli counts in cecum were not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatments. The results showed that the dietary inclusion of 1% FC improved ileal morphology and caecal microflora without any adverse effect on the apparent digestibility. These results indicate that FC has the potential to be a feed additive which improves intestinal health for broiler diets.

Effect of dietary raw and fermented sour cherry kernel (Prunus cerasus L.) on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in broiler chickens

Journal Paper
Emrah Güngör, Güray Erener
Poultry Science

Sour cherry kernels are waste products of the fruit juice industry. Solid-state fermentation has great potential for recycling the agro-industrial residues. In the present study, the effect of raw sour cherry kernel (RC) and fermented sour cherry kernel (FC) by Aspergillus niger on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality in broiler chickens was investigated. A total of 343 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to 7 treatments with 7 replicates for each treatment and 7 birds in each replicate. The chicks were fed on a basal diet (control) and basal diet supplemented with RC or FC at the 1, 2, and 4% level. Dietary RC improved (P < 0.001) the feed conversion ratio (FCR) at the 1% inclusion level although chicks fed 2 and 4% RC had lower (P < 0.01) body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), and feed intake (FI) from day 1 to 42, compared with that of the birds in the control group. Dietary FC with 1% inclusion level increased (P ≤ 0.05) BWG from day 22 to 42 and also enhanced (P < 0.001) the FCR from day 1 to 42. However, 4% dietary FC had an adverse effect (P < 0.01) on BW, BWG, FI, and the FCR, compared with the control group. The bursa of Fabricius weight was raised (P < 0.01) as the supplemental FC level increased. Dietary RC and FC elevated gut weight (P < 0.01) and length (P ≤ 0.05). Broilers fed on 2% FC had a higher (P ≤ 0.05) ash level and a lower (P ≤ 0.05) b* value in thigh meat, compared with the 2% RC group. The results indicate that FC can be used in broiler nutrition up to 2% level although RC can be added to broiler diets up to 1% level without a detrimental effect on growth performance. Dietary inclusion of 1% RC or FC can be recommended due to the positive effects on broiler chickens.

Okratoksin A’nın Kanatlı Hayvanlar Üzerine Etkisi

Conference Paper (Oral Presentation)
Emrah Güngör, Aydon Altop, Güray ERENER
Güngör, E., ALTOP, A., ERENER G. 2016. Okratoksin A'nın Kanatlı Hayvan Üzerine Etkisi. 12. Ulusal Zootekni Öğrenci Kongresi, Isparta

Abstact

Ochratoxin A is a toxic substance produced by some Aspergillus and Penicillum species and infect human through contaminated mixed feed easily. In addition the fact that contaminating while producing, storing and transporting oof mixed feeds, fungus-treating that have drawn interest in recent years may cause ocurrring of the toxicant. Having huge amount of opportunity to contaminating to poultry feeds, Ochratoxin A pose a serious hazard for poultry. Effect of Ochratoxin A to poultry have summarized with data obtained from recent studies in this review.

Mantarların (Basidiomycota) Kanatlı Hayvanlarda Performans, Ürün Kalitesi, Antioksidan Aktivite, Bağırsak Mikrobiyotası ve Bağışıklık Üzerine Etkileri

Journal Paper
Emrah GÜNGÖR, Aydın ALTOP, Güray ERENER
Güngör, E., Altop, A., Erener, G. 2017. Mantarların (Basidiomycota) Kanatlı Hayvanlarda Performans, Ürün Kalitesi, Antioksidan Aktivite, Bağırsak Mikrobiyotası ve Bağışıklık Üzerine Etkileri. Tavukçuluk Araştırma Dergisi, 14(2), 18-29.

There has been a discussion about usability of mushrooms in poultry nutrition as growth promoter, meat and egg quality enhancer, health protector and treater recently. Mushrooms have some active compounts having antimicrobial, antioxidant and health protector properties such as polysaccharide, lectin and terpene etc. Studies have shown that mushrooms can improve growth, product quality, antioxidant defense system and immunity of poultry by means of its active components. It is summarized effects of Basidiomycota mushrooms on poultry in this review.

Amino acid, mineral, condensed tannin, and other chemical contents of olive leaves (Olea europaea L.) processed via solid-state fermentation using selected Aspergillus niger strains

Journal Paper
Aydin ALTOP, Isa COSKUN, Gokhan FILIK, Altug KUCUKGUL, Yeliz Genc BEKIROGLU, Huseyin CAYAN, Emrah GUNGOR, Ahmet SAHIN, Guray ERENER
Altop, A., Coskun, I., Filik, G., Kucukgul, A., Bekiroglu, Y. G., Cayan, H., Gungor, E., Sahin, E., Erener, G. 2018. Amino acid, mineral, condensed tannin, and other chemical contents of olive leaves (Olea europaea L.) processed via solid-state fermentation using selected Aspergillus niger strains. Ciencia e Investigación Agraria, 45(3), 220-230.

Abstract

The present study aimed to examine the effects of solid-state fermentation (SSF) using selective A. niger strains on the amino acid, mineral, condensed tannin, and other chemical contents of olive leaves. The dried samples were divided into nonfermented (C) and fermented (F) olive leaves, and the latter were fermented by the following A. niger strains: ATCC® 9142TM (F1), ATCC® 200345TM (F2), ATCC® 52172TM (F3), and ATCC® 201572TM (F4), with three replicates for each treatment. Group F4 presented the best results, although all fermented groups generally presented higher performance than C. The total content of amino acids of the fermented olive leaves increased by 68–209% in comparison to that of C, while the cellulose content of the fermented olive leaves decreased by 7–25%. The ash, crude protein (CP), and ether extract (EE) contents increased after fermentation, but the crude fiber (CF) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) contents decreased. The content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) did not change, but acid detergent fiber (ADF) varied among the groups. The starch and sugar contents of all fermented groups except F1 also decreased compared to those of C. The mineral contents increased in all fermented groups, and the condensed tannin content varied according to the A. niger strain used. Thus, olive leaves fermented with different A. niger strains, especially F4, seem to have considerable potential as ruminant feed, as they are enriched with amino acids and minerals and have an improved chemical composition. However, these results should be supported and validated by animal experiments.

Feed Fermentation in Poultry Nutrition

Conference Paper (Oral Presentation)
Emrah GÜNGÖR, Aydın ALTOP, Güray ERENER
Güngör E., Altop A., Erener G. 2018. Feed Fermentation in Poultry Nutrition. 10th International Animal Science Conference, 25-27 Ekim 2018, Antalya.

Abstract

Fermentation has been used recently in poultry nutrition due to having great potential. It can improve the nutritional composition of feedstuffs, eliminate antinutritional components, enrich with enzymes, phenolic compounds and coloring agents. Fermented feedstuffs can increase performance, feed utilization, digestibility, immunity, antioxidant capacity, intestinal microflora in poultry. Improvements of feedstuffs by fermentation and effects of fermented feedstuffs on poultry are summarized in this study.

Amino acid, mineral, condensed tannin, and other chemical contents of olive leaves (Olea europaea L.) processed via solid-state fermentation using selected Aspergillus niger strains

Journal Paper
Aydin ALTOP, Isa COSKUN, Gokhan FILIK, Altug KUCUKGUL, Yeliz Genc BEKIROGLU, Huseyin CAYAN, Emrah GUNGOR, Ahmet SAHIN, Guray ERENER
Altop, A., Coskun, I., Filik, G., Kucukgul, A., Bekiroglu, Y. G., Cayan, H., Gungor, E., Sahin, E., Erener, G. 2018. Amino acid, mineral, condensed tannin, and other chemical contents of olive leaves (Olea europaea L.) processed via solid-state fermentation using selected Aspergillus niger strains. Ciencia e Investigación Agraria, 45(3), 220-230.

Abstract

The present study aimed to examine the effects of solid-state fermentation (SSF) using selective A. niger strains on the amino acid, mineral, condensed tannin, and other chemical contents of olive leaves. The dried samples were divided into nonfermented (C) and fermented (F) olive leaves, and the latter were fermented by the following A. niger strains: ATCC® 9142TM (F1), ATCC® 200345TM (F2), ATCC® 52172TM (F3), and ATCC® 201572TM (F4), with three replicates for each treatment. Group F4 presented the best results, although all fermented groups generally presented higher performance than C. The total content of amino acids of the fermented olive leaves increased by 68–209% in comparison to that of C, while the cellulose content of the fermented olive leaves decreased by 7–25%. The ash, crude protein (CP), and ether extract (EE) contents increased after fermentation, but the crude fiber (CF) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) contents decreased. The content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) did not change, but acid detergent fiber (ADF) varied among the groups. The starch and sugar contents of all fermented groups except F1 also decreased compared to those of C. The mineral contents increased in all fermented groups, and the condensed tannin content varied according to the A. niger strain used. Thus, olive leaves fermented with different A. niger strains, especially F4, seem to have considerable potential as ruminant feed, as they are enriched with amino acids and minerals and have an improved chemical composition. However, these results should be supported and validated by animal experiments.

Aspergillus niger may improve nutritional quality of grape seed and its usability in animal nutrition through solid-state fermentation

Journal Paper
Aydın ALTOP, Emrah GÜNGÖR, Güray ERENER
Altop, A., Güngör, E., Erener, G. 2018. Aspergillus niger may improve nutritional quality of grape seed and its usability in animal nutrition through solid-state fermentation. International Advanced Researches and Engineering Journal, 2(3), 273-277.

Abstract

Effects of different Aspergillus niger strains on main nutritional components of grape seed in solid-state fermentation were investigated in this study. Grape seeds were fermented with three different A. niger strains which are ATCC 9142, ATCC 200345 and ATCC 52172. Fermented and unfermented grape seeds were analyzed for crude protein, ether extract, ash, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF). Unfermented grape seeds (control group) and fermented groups: FG1 (ATCC 9142), FG2 (ATCC 200345) and FG3 (ATCC 52172) were compared each other depending on the results of chemical analyses. Crude protein increased (p < 0.001) with fermentation in all groups and the highest increases were observed in FG2 and FG3 groups. Ether extract was similar with control in FG1 group but decreased (p < 0.001) in FG2 and FG3 groups. Ash content increased (p < 0.001) through fermentation in all groups, the highest increases were noted in FG2 and FG3 groups. Crude fiber, ADF, NDF and nitrogen-free extracts (NFE) were decreased with fermentation in all groups (p < 0.001). Whereas the highest decreases of NFE were observed in FG1 and FG2 groups, the highest reduction in crude fiber, ADF and NDF were ocurred in FG2 group. These results showed that nutritional quality of grape seeds can be improved by A. niger solid-state fermentation and the best results were taken from ATCC 52172.

Nutritional Changes of Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus) Kernel Subjected to Aspergillus niger Solid-state Fermentation

Journal Paper
Emrah GÜNGÖR, Aydın ALTOP, Ergin ÖZTÜRK, Güray ERENER
Güngör, E., Altop, A., Öztürk, E., Erener, G. 2017. Nutritional Changes of Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus) Kernel Subjected to Aspergillus niger Solid-state Fermentation. Journal of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty. The Special Issue of 2nd International Balkan Agriculture Congress. 99-103.

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of Aspergillus niger solid-state fermentation on main nutritional content of cherry (Prunus cerasus) kernel. Three Aspergillus niger strains (ATCC 52172, ATCC 200345, ATCC 9142) were used in this study. Cherry kernels were analyzed for crude protein (CP), total ash (TA), total fat (TF), crude  fiber (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) before and after fermentation to see nutritional change. CP level of the sour cherry increased by 14.1% and reached up to 41.66% from 27.56%. Fungal fermentation changed also TA, TF, CF, NFE, NDF, ADF contents of cherry kernel. These results suggest that solid-state fermentation with Aspergillus niger can be used for utilization nutritional properties of cherry kernels to make having potential in animal nutrition.

Nutritional Status of Cherry (Prunus cerasus) Seed Kernels Biodegraded with Aspergillus niger Cultures

Conference Paper (Oral Presentation)
Emrah GÜNGÖR, Aydın ALTOP, Ergin ÖZTÜRK, Güray ERENER
Güngör, E., Altop, A., Öztürk, E., Erener, G. 2017. Nutritional status of cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed kernels biodegraded with Aspergillus niger cultures. 2nd International Balkan Agriculture Congress, 16-18 Mayıs 2017, Tekirdağ.

Abstract

This study was carried out  to investigate the effects of Aspergillus niger solid-state fermentation on main nutritional content of cherry (Prunus cerasus) kernel. Three Aspergillus niger strains (ATCC 52172, ATCC 200345, ATCC 9142) were used in this study. Cherry kernels were analyzed for crude protein (CP), total ash (TA), total fat (TF), crude fiber (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), neutral  detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) before and after fermentation to see nutritional change. CP level of the sour cherry increased by 14.1% and reached up to  41.66% from 27.56%. Fungal fermentation changed also TA, TF, CF, NFE, NDF, ADF contents of cherry kernel. These results suggest that solid-state fermentation with Aspergillus niger can be used for utilization nutritional properties of cherry kernels to make having potential in animal nutrition.

Yumurta ve Piliç Eti Kalitesi-Hayvan Besleme İlişkisi

Conference Paper (Oral Presentation)
Ergin ÖZTÜRK, Emrah GÜNGÖR
Öztürk E., Güngör E. 2016. Yumurta ve Piliç Eti Kalitesi-Hayvan Besleme İlişkisi. Ulusal Kümes Hayvanları Kongresi, 5-8 Ekim 2016, Samsun.

Abstract

Egg and broiler meat are among the most important and valuable food sources due to their higher and balanced nutrient contents (amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals). The quality of egg and poultry meat is affected by the feedstuffs and especially feed additives which are used with various aims. The researchers always wondered the transition ratio of the biologically active substances (BAS) found in feedstuffs and feed additives into the egg and poultry meat and also whether the BAS have positive or negative effects on the end products. In this review, it was aimed to discuss the effects of BAS found in feedstuffs and feed additives on egg and poultry meat and also to explain the effects of BAS with respect to product quality and food safety with recent and reliable data.

Katı Kültür Fermentasyonu Uygulanan Yem Hammaddelerinin Kanatlı Beslemede Kullanılabilirliği

Conference Paper (Oral Presentation)
Aydın ALTOP, Emrah GÜNGÖR, Güray ERENER
1) Altop A., Güngör E., Erener G. 2016. Katı Kültür Fermentasyonu Uygulanan Yem Hammaddelerinin Kanatlı Beslemede Kullanılabilirliği. Ulusal Kümes Hayvanları Kongresi, 5-8 Ekim 2016, Samsun.

Abstract

Some feedstuffs has been the main component of poultry diets have restrictive factors (trypsin inhibitor, lectin and globulin) with lower nutrient content. Various pretreatments have been used to eliminate the negative traits of feedstuffs, having insufficient nutritive profile and besides to utilize ingredients of poultry diet. Heat treatment, processing with enzymes and treatment with chemicals are some of them. Additionally, fermentation technique (with fungus and bacteria) has been recently taken to interest in using those purposes. Fermentation processes have divided two type as solid state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) in respect to free water content of the substrate. Solid state fermentation has seen more favorable than submerged fermentation with regard to utilization of agricultural waste products. In solid state fermentation, especially processing with fungus, researchers have found out hopeful results about enhancing nutritional quality of feed/feedstuffs and waste and by-products, decreasing amount of tannin content, degrading structure of cellulose and eliminating some anti-nutritional factors. In this review, changing of nutritive component of feed/feedstuffs and waste and by-products which fermented solid state is explained.

Kanatlı Beslemede Okratoksin A Tehlikesi

Journal Paper
Emrah GÜNGÖR, Aydın ALTOP, Güray ERENER
Güngör E., Altop A., Erener G. 2016. Kanatlı Beslemede Okratoksin A Tehlikesi. Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, 4(12), 1212-1220.

Abstract

Ochratoxin A is a toxic substance coming up with growing up of some species of Aspergillus and Penicillium at feedstuffs. Diseases and deaths can occur if this toxic substance is consumed by animals. Ochratoxin A can contaminate easily feedstuffs of mixed feeds while producing, harvesting and storing period and pose a serious threat for world and Turkey considering existing rate in feed and feedstuffs. Moreover taking account of passing to animal tissues, ochratoxin A pose a serious risk for human health. Regarding this, ochratoxin A has negative effects on human such as disorders of kidney and reproductive organs. In addition there is various methods to eliminate this damages made by ochratoxin A. In this review, existing of ochratoxin A in poultry feeds, the negative effects on poultry, transition to tissues and practices that can ease the negative effects were summarized.