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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary raw sour cherry kernel (RC) or fermented sour cherry kernel (FC) on apparent digestibility, ileal morphology, and caecal microflora in broiler chickens. Raw sour cherry kernel was fermented by Aspergillus niger for 7 D. A total of 343 one-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were assigned to 7 dietary treatments consisting of 7 replicates of 7 broilers each. All birds were fed with a commercial diet or diets supplemented with 1%, 2%, or 4% RC or FC. The experimental period was 42 D. Apparent dry matter (DM), nitrogen and ash digestibilities were diminished (P < 0.05) by dietary RC inclusion, although dietary FC did not negatively affect (P > 0.05) nutrient digestibility. Dietary 1% FC increased (P < 0.01) the villus height to crypt depth ratio (VH:CD) compared with the other treatment groups, although RC4 reduced the villus height (VH, P < 0.001) and VH:CD (P < 0.01), compared with the control group. Dietary treatments had no effect (P > 0.05) on the crypt depth (CD). Birds fed 1% FC had the highest (P < 0.05) caecal Lactobacillus spp. counts among the treatment groups. Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli counts in cecum were not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary treatments. The results showed that the dietary inclusion of 1% FC improved ileal morphology and caecal microflora without any adverse effect on the apparent digestibility. These results indicate that FC has the potential to be a feed additive which improves intestinal health for broiler diets.
Sour cherry kernels are waste products of the fruit juice industry. Solid-state fermentation has great potential for recycling the agro-industrial residues. In the present study, the effect of raw sour cherry kernel (RC) and fermented sour cherry kernel (FC) by Aspergillus niger on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality in broiler chickens was investigated. A total of 343 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to 7 treatments with 7 replicates for each treatment and 7 birds in each replicate. The chicks were fed on a basal diet (control) and basal diet supplemented with RC or FC at the 1, 2, and 4% level. Dietary RC improved (P < 0.001) the feed conversion ratio (FCR) at the 1% inclusion level although chicks fed 2 and 4% RC had lower (P < 0.01) body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), and feed intake (FI) from day 1 to 42, compared with that of the birds in the control group. Dietary FC with 1% inclusion level increased (P ≤ 0.05) BWG from day 22 to 42 and also enhanced (P < 0.001) the FCR from day 1 to 42. However, 4% dietary FC had an adverse effect (P < 0.01) on BW, BWG, FI, and the FCR, compared with the control group. The bursa of Fabricius weight was raised (P < 0.01) as the supplemental FC level increased. Dietary RC and FC elevated gut weight (P < 0.01) and length (P ≤ 0.05). Broilers fed on 2% FC had a higher (P ≤ 0.05) ash level and a lower (P ≤ 0.05) b* value in thigh meat, compared with the 2% RC group. The results indicate that FC can be used in broiler nutrition up to 2% level although RC can be added to broiler diets up to 1% level without a detrimental effect on growth performance. Dietary inclusion of 1% RC or FC can be recommended due to the positive effects on broiler chickens.
Nutritional changes in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed by Aspergillus niger solid state fermentation were investigated in this study. Pomegranate seed was fermented by two different A. niger strains (ATCC 20345 and ATCC 9142). Crude protein, ether extract and ash were increased (P<0.001), nitrogen-free extract, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were decreased (P<0.001) by fermentation in both strains. Hemicellulose was not changed (P>0.05) by ATCC 20345 but decreased (P<0.01) by ATCC 9142. This results showed that A. niger solid state fermentation can be used to improve nutritional composition of pomegranate seed in order to make a suitable feedstuff for poultry nutrition.
The effects of unfermented (UCK) and fermented (FCK) sour cherry kernel (0,1,2,4%) with Aspergillus niger (ATCC 200345) under solid state fermentation on performance, digestibility and cecal microflora in broiler
chicks were investigated in this study. UCK did not affect (P>0.05) growth performance and digestibility at 1% but decreased (P<0.05) at 2 and 4%. Cecal microflora was not affected (P>0.05) by UCK inclusion. FCK
improved (P<0.05) growth performance and cecal microflora at 1%, did not change (P>0.05) at 2% and decreased (P<0.001) performance at 4%. Digestibility was not affected (P>0.05) by FCK addition. In conclusion, using of FCK in poultry diets at 1% is recommended.
Effects of different Aspergillus niger strains on main nutritional components of grape seed in solid state fermentation were investigated in this study. Grape seeds were fermented with three different Aspergillus niger strains which are ATCC 9142, ATCC 200345 and ATCC 52172 for 48 hours. Fermented and unfermented grape seeds were analyzed for crude protein, ether extract, ash, crude fiber, NDF and ADF. Unfermented grape seeds (G: control) and fermented groups: FG1 (ATCC 9142), FG2 (ATCC 200345) and FG3 (ATCC 52172) compared each other depending on the results of chemical analyses. Crude protein increased with fermentation in all groups and the highest increases were observed in FG2 and FG3 groups. Ether extract was similiar with control in FG1 group while decreased in FG2 and FG3 groups. Ash content increased through fermentation in all groups, the highest increases were noted in FG2 and FG3 groups. Crude fiber, ADF, NDF and nitrogen free extracts were decreased with fermentation in all groups. While the highest decreases of nitrogen free extracts were observed in FG1 and FG2 groups, the least amounts of crude fiber, ADF and NDF were detected in FG2 group. These results show that nutritional quality of grape seeds can be improved by Aspergillus niger solid state fermentation and the best results are taken from ATCC 52172.
Effect of Aspergillus niger ATCC 52172 on main nutritional components, minerals, condansed tannin and fenolic compounds of olive leaves in solid state fermentation was studied. Olive leaves were fermented with Aspergillus niger ATCC 52172 for 48 hours. Fermented olive leaves (FOL) and unfermented olive leaves (OL) were analyzed for main nutritional components, minerals, condansed tannin and fenolic compounds. Crude fiber was decreased, whereas crupe protein, ether extract, ash, ADF, NDF and condansed tannin were increased with fermentation. Macro minerals (Ca, N, K, P, Mg) and micro minerals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B) were increased through fermentation. Oleuropein was decreased, while catechin and hydroxytyrosol were increased with fermentation. These results show that Aspergillus niger ATCC 52172 may be used to improve nutritional content of olive leaves.
Agaricus bisporus is the most widely cultivated mushroom in the world. Mushrooms have a potential to be used in animal nutrition owing to its nutritional composition. However, there is limited information about chemical compositions of cap and stem parts of A. bisporus, separately. In this study, nutritional compositions of cap and stem parts of A. bisporus were investigated. For this purpose, crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), ash, crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were analyzed and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) and hemicellulose (HC) were calculated. Cap and stem parts of A. bisporus had, respectively, 37.72 and 38.44% CP, 1.71 and 1.25% EE, 20.65 and 21.71% CF, 13.73 and 8.39% ash, 26.18 and 30.22% NFE, 17.98 and 22.58% HC, 31.09 and 34.61% NDF, 13.11 and 12.03% ADF. In conclusion, cap and stem were the same (P>0.05) in CP but cap was higher (P<0.05) in EE, ash and less (P<0.01) in CF, NDF ADF, and HC than stem.
Nutritional compositions of Pleurotus ostreatus cap and stem were compared in this study. P. ostreatus is the third largest commercially produced mushroom in the world. P. ostreatus have potential to be used in animal nutrition due to its nutritional composition. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the nutritional composition of cap and stem parts of P. ostreatus, separately. Crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), ash, crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were analyzed and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) and hemicellulose (HC) were calculated. Cap and stem had, respectively, 25.42 and 9.93% CP, 1.36 and 0.64% EE, 26.29 and 31.60% CF, 7.42 and 7.43% ash, 39.52 and 50.41% NFE, 12.24 and 15.45 HC, 31.07 and 53.59 NDF, 18.84 and 38.14 ADF. Consequently, cap and stem were the same (P>0.05) in ash and HC content but cap was higher (P<0.001) in CP, EE and less (P<0.01) in CF, NFE, NDF, and ADF than stem.
Effects of Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis on nutritional composition of mixed feed were compared in this study. Mixed layer feed was solid-state fermented with A. niger (ATCC 200345) and B. subtilis (ATCC 21556) separately. Fermented (A. niger; AN, B. subtilis: BS) and unfermented mixed feed were analyzed for crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), ash, crude fiber (CF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) whereas nitrogen-free extract (NFE) and hemicellulose (HC) were calculated with obtained data. CP increased (P<0.001) from 15.83% to 35.21 (BS) and 33.40% (AN), EE decreased (P<0.001) from 4.50% to 3.01 (BS) and 2.83 (AN), CF content (5.91%) did not change (P>0.05) in BS (6.15%) but increased (P<0.001) in AN (7.11%), ash increased (P<0.001) from 12.00% to 16.10 (BS) and 16.67% (AN), NFE decreased from 61.76% to 39.50 (BS) and 39.89% (AN), HC content (7.81%) did not change (P>0.05) in BS (7.10%) but increased (P<0.01) in AN (9.31%). NDF and ADF content (14.86 and 7.05%, respectively) did not change (P>0.05) in BS (13.60 and 6.50%, respectively) but increased (P<0.001) in AN (17.19% and 7.88%, respectively). This results showed that B. subtilis were better than A. niger
for increasing CP content whereas A. niger showed better performance in increasing CF, HC, NDF, ADF content and both were the same in decreasing EE and NFE content.
Okratoksin A Aspergillus ve Penicillum türleri tarafından üretilen ve bulaştığı hayvansal ürünler vasıtasıyla insanlara kolayca geçebilen toksik bir maddedir. Gerek karma yem hammaddesinin üretim, depolanması ve taşınmasında yemlere bulaşması ve gerekse son yıllarda ilgi odağı haline gelen yemlerin funguslarla işlenmesi veya fermente edilmesi sırasında oluşması bu tür yemlerle beslenen hayvanlar için tehlike oluşturmaktadır. İşte bu derlemede okratoksin A’nın kanatlı hayvanlar üzerindeki olası etkileri güncel veriler ışığında değerlendirilmeye çalışılmıştır.
Mantarların kanatlı hayvan beslenmesinde gelişimi artırıcı, et ve yumurta kalitesini iyileştirici, sağlık koruma ve
tedavi edici olarak kullanılma potansiyeli son yıllarda tartışılmaya başlanmıştır. Mantarlar antimikrobiyal, antioksidan ve bağışıklık güçlendirici özellikte polisakkarit, lektin ve terpen vb. bileşikler içermektedir. Yapılan çalışmalar, mantarların sahip oldukları aktif bileşenlerle kanatlı hayvanların gelişimini artırdığı, et ve yumurta kalitesini iyileştirdiği, antioksidan savunma sistemi ve bağışıklığı desteklediğini göstermiştir. Bu makalede Basidiomycota mantarlarının kanatlı hayvanlar üzerindeki etkileri incelenmeye çalışılmıştır.
Fermentation has been used recently in poultry nutrition due to having great potential. It can improve the nutritional composition of feedstuffs, eliminate antinutritional components, enrich with enzymes, phenolic compounds and coloring agents. Fermented feedstuffs can increase performance, feed utilization, digestibility, immunity, antioxidant capacity, intestinal microflora in poultry. Improvements of feedstuffs by fermentation and effects of fermented feedstuffs on poultry are summarized in this study.
The present study aimed to examine the effects of solid-state fermentation (SSF) using selective A. niger strains on the amino acid, mineral, condensed tannin, and other chemical contents of olive leaves. The dried samples were divided into nonfermented (C) and fermented (F) olive leaves, and the latter were fermented by the following A. niger strains: ATCC® 9142TM (F1), ATCC® 200345TM (F2), ATCC® 52172TM (F3), and ATCC® 201572TM (F4), with three replicates for each treatment. Group F4 presented the best results, although all fermented groups generally presented higher performance than C. The total content of amino acids of the fermented olive leaves increased by 68–209% in comparison to that of C, while the cellulose content of the fermented olive leaves decreased by 7–25%. The ash, crude protein (CP), and ether extract (EE) contents increased after fermentation, but the crude fiber (CF) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) contents decreased. The content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) did not change, but acid detergent fiber (ADF) varied among the groups. The starch and sugar contents of all fermented groups except F1 also decreased compared to those of C. The mineral contents increased in all fermented groups, and the condensed tannin content varied according to the A. niger strain used. Thus, olive leaves fermented with different A. niger strains, especially F4, seem to have considerable potential as ruminant feed, as they are enriched with amino acids and minerals and have an improved chemical composition. However, these results should be supported and validated by animal experiments.
Effects of different Aspergillus niger strains on main nutritional components of grape seed in solid-state fermentation were investigated in this study. Grape seeds were fermented with three different A. niger strains which are ATCC 9142, ATCC 200345 and ATCC 52172. Fermented and unfermented grape seeds were analyzed for crude protein, ether extract, ash, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF). Unfermented grape seeds (control group) and fermented groups: FG1 (ATCC 9142), FG2 (ATCC 200345) and FG3 (ATCC 52172) were compared each other depending on the results of chemical analyses. Crude protein increased (p < 0.001) with fermentation in all groups and the highest increases were observed in FG2 and FG3 groups. Ether extract was similar with control in FG1 group but decreased (p < 0.001) in FG2 and FG3 groups. Ash content increased (p < 0.001) through fermentation in all groups, the highest increases were noted in FG2 and FG3 groups. Crude fiber, ADF, NDF and nitrogen-free extracts (NFE) were decreased with fermentation in all groups (p < 0.001). Whereas the highest decreases of NFE were observed in FG1 and FG2 groups, the highest reduction in crude fiber, ADF and NDF were ocurred in FG2 group. These results showed that nutritional quality of grape seeds can be improved by A. niger solid-state fermentation and the best results were taken from ATCC 52172.
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of Aspergillus niger solid-state fermentation on main nutritional content of cherry (Prunus cerasus) kernel. Three Aspergillus niger strains (ATCC 52172, ATCC 200345, ATCC 9142) were used in this study. Cherry kernels were analyzed for crude protein (CP), total ash (TA), total fat (TF), crude fiber (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) before and after fermentation to see nutritional change. CP level of the sour cherry increased by 14.1% and reached up to 41.66% from 27.56%. Fungal fermentation changed also TA, TF, CF, NFE, NDF, ADF contents of cherry kernel. These results suggest that solid-state fermentation with Aspergillus niger can be used for utilization nutritional properties of cherry kernels to make having potential in animal nutrition.
The study was conducted to determine the effects of fungal solid state fermentation on nutritional properties of cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed kernels. Three Aspergillus niger strain (ATCC 9142, ATCC 200345, ATCC 52172) were used in this study. Before and after of fermentation, crude protein (CP), total ash (TA), total fat (TF), crude fiber (CF), nitrogen free extract (NFE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) content of cherry seed kernels were determined to evaluate its nutritional status. Fungal fermentation increased CP content of cherry seed kernels from 27.52% to 41.66%, increased TA content from 2.60% to 7.89% and changed TF, CF, NFE, NDF, ADF, ADL content. These results suggest that solid state fermentation with Aspergillus niger can be used for utilization nutritional properties of cherry seed kernels to make having potential in animal
Sağlıklı ve dengeli beslenme için içerdiği amino asitler, yağ asitleri, vitaminler, mineraller ve diğer besin maddelerince dengeli olmasının yanı sıra sindirim ve emilimlerinin yüksek olması nedeniyle de yumurta ve tavuk eti insan beslenmesinde en önemli kaynaklar arasında yer almaktadır. Yumurta ve tavuk etinin kalitesi karma yemi oluşturan hammaddeler ve özellikle değişik amaçlarla kullanılan katkı maddelerinden etkilenebilmektedir. Karma yemlerde kullanılan hammaddeler ile katkı maddelerinin yumurta ve tavuk etine ne düzeyde geçebildiği, olumlu veya olumsuz etkilerinin neler olabildiği bilim çevreleri ve tüketicilerde merak konusu olmuştur. Dolayısıyla bu derlemede yumurta ve tavuk etinin ürün kalitesi ve gıda güvenliği bakımından hammaddeler ve özellikle son yıllarda tartışma konusu olan yem katkı maddelerinden ne düzeyde etkilenebildiği, güncel ve bilimsel verilerle açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır.
Kanatlı hayvan rasyonlarının temelini oluşturan bazı yem hammaddelerinin beslemeyi engelleyici maddeler içermeleri (tripsin inhibitörü, lektinler ve globulinler) yanında besin madde içeriklerinin yetersiz oluşları da kanatlı hayvan beslemede kullanımlarını sınırlandırmaktadır. Bu olumsuzlukların giderilmesi ve daha zengin besin madde içeriğine sahip rasyon bilesenleri elde etmek amacıyla bu materyallere ısıl işlem, enzim ile parçalama ve kimyasallarla muamele uygulanmaktadır. Bu işlemlerden baska söz konusu hammadde, yan ve atık ürünlerin besinsel kompozisyonunu geliştirmek ve içerdikleri antibesinsel faktörleri elemine etmek amacıyla mikroorganizmalarla (fungus ve bakteri) fermentasyon uygulaması da gittikçe yaygınlaşmaktadır. Fermentasyon yöntemi substratlardaki serbest su miktarlarına göre sıvı ve katı kültür fermentasyon olmak üzere ikiye ayrılmaktadır. Katı kültür fermentasyonu tarımsal artıkların değerlendirilmesinde sıvı fermentasyona göre daha avantajlı görülmektedir. Katı kültür yönteminde özellikle fungusların kullanılması yem hammaddesi ile yan ve atık ürünlerin besinsel kompozisyonunu iyileştirmesi, tanen miktarının düşürülmesi, selülozlu yapıların yıkılması ve antibesinsel unsurların giderilmesi açısından ümitvari sonuçlar elde edilmiştir. Bu derlemede katı kültür fermentasyonuna tabi tutulan yem/yem hammaddeleri ile tarımsal yan ve atık ürünlerin besinsel kompozisyondaki değişimler ve kanatlı hayvan beslemede kullanılabilirlikleri üzerine bilgiler verilmeye çalışılmıştır.
Okratoksin A, toprak patojeni olan bazı Aspergillus ve Penicillium çeşitlerinin ürünler üzerinde gelişmeleri sonucu ortaya çıkan toksik etkili bir maddedir. Bu toksin maddenin hayvanlar tarafından tüketilmesi sonucunda hastalıklar ve ölümler görülebilmektedir. Karma yem hammaddelerinin üretim, hasat ve depolama işlemleri sırasında kolayca oluşabilen okratoksin A, yem ve yem hammaddelerinde bulunuş oranları itibariyle dünya ve ülkemiz açısından tehlike oluşturmaktadır. Okratoksin A ayrıca hayvansal dokulara geçerek insan sağlığı için de risk oluşturmaktadır. İnsanlarda böbrek ve üreme organlarında olumsuzluklara neden olan okratoksin A’nın olumsuz etkilerini giderici birçok yöntem bulunmaktadır. Bu derlemede okratoksin A’nın yemlerde bulunuşu, kanatlı hayvanlara etkileri, dokulara geçiş oranı ve zararlı etkilerini hafifletici önlemler özetlenmiştir.